The door was centrally located on the eaves side of the building. The barn was organized in a three bay system with a central threshing floor and two equal size bays on either side. The barn was generally sited so that the left side of the building faced toward the warmer south or east as this was the bay customarily used to stable livestock. This orientation assisted in keeping the animals warmer in the winter and assured that the manure pile created on that side of the building had the benefit of spring sun to melt it in time for spring planting. Above the animal stalls a hay loft was constructed of boards sufficient to support the hay but loose enough to permit ventilation of the hay from below. The bay on the other side of the threshing floor was used for the storage of hay, grain and other fodder. This bay was often divided from the threshing floor by a waist-high wall.

Pair Antique English Silver Plated Entree Dishes

Technical details[ edit ] There are two historic tintype processes: In the wet process, a collodion emulsion containing suspended silver halide crystals had to be formed on the plate just before it was exposed in the camera while still wet. Chemical treatment then reduced the crystals to microscopic particles of metallic silver in proportion to the intensity and duration of their exposure to light, resulting in a visible image.

The later and more convenient dry process was similar but used a gelatin emulsion which could be applied to the plate long before use and exposed in the camera dry. In both processes, a very underexposed negative image was produced in the emulsion. Its densest areas, corresponding to the lightest parts of the subject, appeared gray by reflected light.

Royal Albert was the trading name of the firm founded by Thomas Clark Wild, founded about The firm has always been known for its fine quality bone china. – Thomas Wild and Son. Rosyln China and in Shelley China became part of Royal Albert under Allied English Potteries.

Technical details[ edit ] There are two historic tintype processes: In the wet process, a collodion emulsion containing suspended silver halide crystals had to be formed on the plate just before it was exposed in the camera while still wet. Chemical treatment then reduced the crystals to microscopic particles of metallic silver in proportion to the intensity and duration of their exposure to light, resulting in a visible image. The later and more convenient dry process was similar but used a gelatin emulsion which could be applied to the plate long before use and exposed in the camera dry.

In both processes, a very underexposed negative image was produced in the emulsion. Its densest areas, corresponding to the lightest parts of the subject, appeared gray by reflected light. The areas with the least amount of silver, corresponding to the darkest areas of the subject, were essentially transparent and appeared black when seen against the dark background provided by the lacquer. The image as a whole therefore appeared to be a dull-toned positive. To obtain as light-toned an image as possible, potassium cyanide , a very dangerous and powerful deadly poison, was normally employed as the photographic fixer.

It was perhaps the most acutely hazardous of all the several highly toxic chemicals originally used in this and many other early photographic processes.

Antique Terms (S)

It is just a small record of my experiences, hunting, researching and playing with silver and silver plate. One of the most frustrating parts of silver collecting it the lack of research data compiled in one place. I hope to correct this. I hope that parts of it can be useful to you. If you do find it useful please feel free to leave a comment.

Dating to the ‘s, this rare and elegant form is one of our favorite styles of the 19th century. Referred to as the ‘octagonal’ style when made, it was the most expensive style available at the time due to the difficult nature of crafting the shaped body and parts.

In each of these countries their distinctive style was further developed until the end of the century where the exchange between the two countries increased and gave rise to a more uniform style of big, flat watches. Later a few centres developed, in which high quality watches were produced, especially for the Ottoman and Chinese market. In England the watches kept the single footed cock, but the D- shape of the cock-foot seen at the end of the 17th century was retained only until about Starting from then, the foot got narrower and the diameter of the cock itself diminished.

The English retained their rear winding system throughout, but added consequently a dust cap for protection as soon as the cylinder escapement was introduced. Silver and gold as material for dials got replaced by enamelled copper. One of the most important English contributions to gaining precision in timekeeping in the early 18th century was made by George Graham, who perfected the cylinder escapement. Thanks to his refinements watches could be of thinner construction and of smaller size.

The cases remained rather plain, with occasional engravings such as coat of arms at the beginning of the century. From left to right: During the s Thomas Mudge developed the lever escapement and in parallel the Longitude problem was tackled by several watchmakers, inspiring John Harrison to develop one of the most famed watches in history: John Arnold and Thomas Earnshaw disputing over the privileges of perfecting escapes and compensation balances and building marine chronometers, some of which accompanied the most important geographical expeditions of the 18th century.

Sheffield Cutlery Flatware & Gifts

Dating The dating of Lydian Lion coins is “the most challenging question in ancient Greek numismatic scholarship,” according to Nicholas Cahill and John H. Alyattes was the father of Kroisos Croesus , the Lydian king of legendary wealth who was likely the first to strike coins of pure gold and silver. Alyattes is infrequently referred to as Alyattes II.

Silver sulfide appears as tarnish on objects made of silver or plated with silver. Silver objects have been found by archaeologists in Egypt dating back to B. C. Silver is rather easy to extract from its ores, so once it was discovered, it was easy to work with and therefore, was used for many things.

Don’t worry — your e-mail address is totally secure. I promise to use it only to send you Clock Collecting Tips. There are so many styles and types of clocks, made by so many clock makers and from so many countries, that I was totally lost. Over many years, I have learned a lot. I have concentrated on the American clock companies for my collection, so there is much for me to learn about clocks from outside the US. The question I get most from the comment form on this web site is: Some people will see a clock at an antique store that would look good in a certain room of their house, and end up with it that way.

However you might end up with your special clock, you probably would like to identify, date and generally learn more about it. This clock forum page may be able to help. You can post your clock here for other visitors to see. If these visitors have knowledge of your clock, they can post comments about it here. Also, if I know anything about your clock, I will also post a comment for you.

Silver – Silverplate – Cups & Goblets

Having first identified the makers marks, place of origin and age of your items makes it easier to research them further. Likewise, appraising and evaluating your items by finding similar examples that have actually sold, helps you determine their worth and gives you a better understanding of current market conditions. In turn, this valuable information leads to better decisions when buying or selling and can prevent costly mistakes in paying too much or selling too low.

It also helps in describing or listing your items using the correct terms to attract more buyers. And in the case of family heirlooms, it enables you to delve more deeply into their history. Stemming from decades of personal experience in the field of antiques and by sharing the same concerns as our professional members, we have created convenient online practical research tools to assist you on a day-to-day basis:

The dating of this movement is made with help of No. , an experimental piece belonging to the British Museum, signed on the dial plate ‘Ferdinand Berthoud inv. et fecit. ’. The dating using hallmarks on the cases can be problematic, as sometimes .

The company soon outgrew its quarters and constructed a larger building, which still stands on Bridge Street, Shelton, in near the Housatonic River, overlooking Derby. A number of additions were added in subsequent years. The original Canal Street building was razed when the railroad was built through Shelton in The company made toilet articles, mirrors, combs, clocks, brushes, table and flatware, tea sets, children’s cups, loving cups trophies , candlesticks, fruit baskets, dishes, basically anything which was plated by or made of silver.

Special orders were constantly commissioned as well. The factory manufactured items for the Sperry and Hutchins trading stamp stores. The Company was noted for its large line of silver plated toilet ware and an economical line of plated hollowware sold under the popular trademark of the Victor Silver Plate Company. A considerable amount of silver was shipped to South America. The logo at the time featured an anchor, often with the words “Derby Silver Company” or its initials surrounding it.

In , the plant merged with the International Silver Company, a consortium of Connecticut silver companies. A victim of the Depression, the plant closed in The building had served as an automobile muffler factory, and during World War II manufactured bombsight optics.

Collector’s Guide to Antique and Vintage Jewelry Marks

Thanks to the “date letter” any piece of British sterling silver can be exactly dated. Old Sheffield Plate and Electroplated silver are not subject to this practice and the regulation issued by the authorities had the main objective of preventing possible frauds by unscrupulous sellers of plated ware. The best-known initiative is the prohibition effective from c. Elkington was forced to change its mark in of stamping plated wares with the “crown”, to avoid misunderstanding with the symbol identifying the Sheffield Assay Office.

The absence of an official dating system makes it difficult to date silver plated wares.

An attractive silver plated ear trumpet. Although it has a dome configuration this example is not from London but is French, dating to the turn of the century. The grille is ornate with natural curves typical o.

However, after a request from the the archivist of the Incorporation of Goldsmiths, who looks after the historical records of the Edinburgh and Glasgow Assay Offices, the editor of the NAWCC Bulletin has allowed the article to be made publicly available and it can now be downloaded by clicking on this this link: My research has also been incorporated in the latest version of Bradbury’s Book of Hallmarks, you can read about this at Bradbury’s Book of Hallmarks.

I will be publishing some corrections and additions to my NAWCC article that I will make available as a download here. The following sections illustrate some characteristic marks to help you identify the type of marks you might find in a watch case and then link to a page that goes into more details about those marks. Sterling silver import marks British Import Hallmarks After 1 June all gold and silver watches imported into Britain were required to be assayed and hallmarked in a British assay office.

They were stamped with new hallmarks that were intended to show that the item was imported and not of British manufacture. The picture here shows a set of London import hallmarks for silver. For clarity this picture shows only the three assay office marks, the town mark, standard mark and date letter. It does not include the sponsor’s mark, but a British hallmark must have all four marks, it is not complete and legal without a sponsor’s mark.

silver tray

The terminology describing them is diverse; “antiques,” “fine crafts,” “minor arts,” and even “collectibles” are all terms that are often used interchangeably when discussing these objects. Decorative arts fall somewhere between the fine arts and technology, although aspects of these two fields cross over and intermingle. The purpose of this guide is to assist researchers trying to identify hallmarks and other marks on decorative art objects.

In those categories where marks are not usually present or evident, the guide gives sources that list manufactures or companies that made particular kinds of objects. The various categories which make up the field of decorative arts are diverse in form and function, have varying histories, and have been pursued with varying degrees of enthusiasm by collectors and connoisseurs for the past several hundred years.

“Silverware” often refers generically to any flatware used for eating by most people in the Western world, and some parts of Asia and Africa — knives, forks, and spoons — whether it is made of silver, stainless steel, or a silver-plated base metal.

Only three Austrian thimble makers are known: Holland Between and small articles were marked with a dagger as an indication of fineness Items of lower silver content are marked Z Many thimbles found in Holland will have been imported and thus have a Dutch import mark. Tax paid marks were abolished in Some inexpensive modern Dutch thimbles are marked on their tops. Dating codes do not seem to be used on Dutch thimbles. Some modern maker’s marks are known. Dagger mark pre with rubbed maker’s mark.

Pre tax paid mark for imported silver Post import marks for

Thank you.

Appraisal Information “What’s my silver or silver plate item worth? Please, read this entire page. This information is provided and is intended to guide and educate you in a very basic way. For an on-line appraisal value and accurate identification, click here. Abe Silverman’s Antique Silver Shop does not personally conduct value appraisals or identifications of quadruple silverplate, Victorian silver, or estate silver plate items, flatware identification or glass or china patterns identifications.

Many people believe their silverplated heirlooms are sterling silver.

Though not quite on a par with the anti-slavery movement of the 19th century, temperance was a very significant morally based social movement in the U.S. and had its roots in the still pervasive damage done to some individuals and their families by the improper use of alcohol.

The mark used was a profile portrait of the reigning monarch’s head. The use of this mark was abolished in Its purpose was to establish when a piece was presented for assay or testing of the silver content. The mark letter changed annually in May, the cycles of date letters were usually in strings of 20 and each cycle was differentiated by a changing of the font, letter case and shield shape.

Originally, makers’ marks were pictograms, but by the beginning of the 17th Century it had become common practice to use the maker’s initials. A letter “F” in an oval cartouche was stamped alongside the regular hallmarks, the maker’s mark being that of the British importing firm sponsor’s mark.

How to Tell Sterling Silver from Plated